Introduction

Organisations are increasingly pursuing international markets because of the opportunities they offer for growth and profits. Indeed, many firms can compete more effectively in foreign markets where they face less competition or be able to appeal to specific market segments with handsome market growth rate. Yet, in order not to fall into the “self-reference criterion” trap or avoid the “NIH” sydrome (Not Invented Here) , marketers have to analyse the unfamiliar marketing environment and customers with different sets of values, customs, consumption patterns, media habit as well as varying buying motives. At one extreme, global companies advocates a standardized marketing mix worldwide, whereas others use an adapted marketing mix to practise the “Think Global, Act Local” philosophy, or the “Think Local, Act Local” motto.